what follows is copied into here from chapter 50 regulation – it is within Siegel’s discussion of SPECIFICITY for emotional regulation – but has specific information about emotions and the development of their specificity



(this is copied into EMOTION NOTES 7 and needs to be put at the end of emotion notes 2 when it is printed)

“As a child develops, the differentiation of primary emotions into categorical ones becomes more and more sophisticated.  In this manner, there is a progression from the earliest states of pleasure or discomfort to the basic or categorical emotions, such as fear, anger, disgust, surprise, interest, shame, and joy.  Sroufe has described the “precursor emotions” of pleasure, wariness, and frustration/distress as preceding the development of the more discrete emotional states of joy, fear, and anger, respectively.  (siegel/tdm/251)”

“As the child continues to develop, more complex and “socially derived” emotions, such as nostalgia, jealousy, and pride, become differentiated.  Linda Camras has suggested that dynamical systems theory may be useful in examining the development of emotional expression.  From this perspective, the infant’s mind functions to incorporate internal processes with interactional responses from parents in the differentiation of the emotional processes within the interconnected domains of neurophysiology, subjective experience, and expression.  The more differentiated, discrete emotions come to function as attractor states that have internally and externally determined (siegle/tdm/251) constraints.  As described by Carol Malatesta-Magai, such a process is a form of “emotion socialization,” which reflects the fundamental way in which affect serves as a social signal and develops in part as a reflection of interpersonal history.  Such emotion socialization occurs both within the child-caregiver relationship and in peer-peer interactions.  (siegel/tdm/252)”

“The specificity of emotional experience is determined by the specific complex layers of appraisal activated in response to a stimulus.  These evaluative processes, mediated by our socially sensitive value centers in the brain, emerge within our individual constitutions and interactional histories.  It is for this reason that in the same situation two people often have such qualitatively different reactions.  Unique personal meaning is created by the specificity of our emotional responses.  (siegel/tdm/252)” [copied to study this 7]

“Researchers have named a wide range of emotions in various categories.  Some of these include interest/excitement, enjoyment/joy, surprise/astonishment, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, anxiety, shyness, and love.  Other types have also been described, such as the “self-conscious emotions: of embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt, as well as a sense of exhilaration and humor.  [Why does he not speak about hope & trust?]  Individuals may have experienced many or all of these emotions at some point in their lives.  They may also have noticed that each time they experienced a given categorical emotion (for example, sadness), it has both unique and universal aspects.  As a state of the system is assembled, it has unique features of both inner processes and external contexts.  (siegel/tdm/252)”

“The differentiation of primary emotional states into categorical emotions [done by specificity of appraisal] is a rapid process illustrating how various layers of the brain are influenced by the unfolding state of mind.  In its essence, emotion is a set of processes involving the recruitment of various circuits under the umbrella of one state of mind.  Thus the appraisal and arousal [again, appraisal put before arousal] processes create a neural net activation profile – a state of mind – whose characteristics in turn directly shape subsequent appraisal and arousal processes.  [Why does he put appraisal first and arousal second?  Would it really be the other way around?]  This intricate feedback mechanism helps us to see why patterns of emotional response can be so tenacious in a given individual.  The elements of continuity in specificity are self-reinforcing.  (siegel/tdm/252)”  [this paragraph is copied into chapter 46 states of mind]


“…the state of mind that wanting to please but being unseen creates:  shame.”  (siegel/tdm/256)


“… emotional processing – the initial orientation, appraisal, arousal, and differentiation mechanisms [of emotion] usually occurs without consciousness.  An individual’s consciousness of these processes allows for the qualitative sensation of emotion  (siegel/tdm/264) ….”Feelings” can therefore involve energy, meaning, behavioral impulses, or the discrete categories of emotion.  (siegel/tdm/265)”



From chapter 51 regulation cont

Recovery means decreasing the disorganizing effects of a particular episode of emotional [over] arousal.  (siegel/tdm/260)”


As our appraisal mechanisms operate and as our primary emotions are differentiated into categorical ones, our minds are influenced by our value systems in every aspect of their functioning. These influences occur without the necessity of conscious awareness.  The idea (siegel/tdm/262) presented in this book is that emotion is a central set of processes directly related to meaning, social communication, attentional focus and perceptual processing.  Emotion is not just some “primitive” remnant of an earlier reptilian evolutionary past.  Emotion directs the flow of activation (energy) and establishes the meaning of representations (information processing) for the individual.  It is not a single, isolated group of processes; it has a direct impact on the entire mind.  (siegel/tdm/263)”


“What role does consciousness itself play in the regulation of emotion?  Consciousness can influence the outcome of emotional processing. Conscious awareness allows for self-reflection, which can enable the mobilization of strategic thoughts and behaviors and can therefore enhance the flexible achievement of goals.  This can be seen as the achievement of new levels of integration. …. Given the fundamental role of the appraisal system in distinguishing what is good and should be approached from what is bad and should be avoided, emotions being accessible to parts of cognition that can consciously mobilize behavior can be crucial in having emotion be effective in certain adaptive ways as a value system.  Consciousness allows emotion to play a more adaptive role in the individual’s behavior.  (siegel/tdm/266)”  copied from chapter 52 regulation con’t to study this 7 and emotion notes 7


“We use our own facial responses to become aware of how we are feeling.  This fits in with the general view that the brain has a representation of the body’s state, including states of arousal, muscle tension, and facial expression, which it uses as information to register “how it feels.”  (siegel/tdm/271)”



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