++SCHORE ON DEVELOPMENT OF RIGHT BRAIN

schore – Affect Regulation – postnotes right brain

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From p 82 –

Our “reactions to” anybody’s “communicating self system are thus registered in his/her right brain, because this hemisphere

[is] dominant for the corporeal self

Contains the most comprehensive and integrated map of the body state available to the brain

Processes the autonomic correlates of emotional arousal

Plays a special role in the perception of the affective qualities of somatic signals coming from the body

Decodes emotional stimuli by “actual felt [somatic] emotional reactions to the stimuli, that is, by a form of empathic responding

And is dominant for attentional processes.

Indeed it is the repository of…[our]autobiographical memory

All from schore/ar/82!

right brain, the hemisphere that is specialized for generating physiological responses to emotional stimuli (Spence et al, 1996).  (schore/ar/84)”

the right hemisphere is specialized for coping with stress (Wittling & Schweiger, 1993) (schore/ar/84)”

and for processing negative affect (Davidson, 1998; Gainotti, 2001; Otto et al., 1987; Schore, 1997b). (schore/ar/84)”

“This hemisphere is also dominant for evaluating the trustworthiness of faces (Winston et al., 2002) in (schore/ar/71)”

“The right hemisphere, which is dominant for processing stress and negative emotions, expecially for monitoring “failure-linked emotions,” shows a strong response to error and negative emotional feedback (Koshkarov, Pokrovskaja, Lovata, & Mordvintsev, 1996; Sobotka et al, 1992), yet is centrally involved in the potential utilization of negative feedback from the external environment for error compensation (Kaplan & Zaidel, 2001).  (schore/ar/92)”

“…the maternal comforting substrate resides in the mother’s right brain (Horton, 1995), the hemisphere that is dominant for nonverbal behavior and for responding to stress (Wittling, 1997).  (schore/ar/94)”

“More so than the clinician’s verbalizations, it is her/her nonverbal activity (Davis & Hadiks, 1994) that creates the safe holding environment.  (schore/ar/94)”

“As opposed to the left, the right hemisphere has a “wait and see” mode of processing (Federmeier & Kutas, 2002, p. 730).  (schore/ar/94)”

“If he/she fails to “hold” long enough it will be overtly manifest in an expression of left brain activity, the sudden onset of verbal behavior; that is, a premature interpretation [or, I would add, a returned defensive projection].  (schore/ar/94)”

“Premature interpretations thus reflect a therapeutic misattunement in which the clinician shifts back into a left hemispheric, secondary process, linear mode in order to extricate himself/herself from falling more deeply into an interactively rapidly amplifying right dominant primary-process psychobiological state that is inherently nonlinear and chaotic.  (schore/ar/94)”

“…early relational trauma, attachment psychopathology, and the defenses of dissociation are stored in the right hemisphere.  (schore/ar/94)”

“…in these central moments of the treatment of developmentally disordered patients, holding the right brain-to-right-brain context of emotional communication is essential.  This holding occurs in implicit processing, and involves “being able to prolong one’s experiential process at the level of implicit experiencing” (Vanaerschot, 1997, p. 148); that is, staying in the right brain mode of “implicit learning” (Hugdahl, 1995).  (schore/ar/94)”

“The right hemisphere is dominant not only for emotional communication (Blonder et al., 1991), empathy (Perry et al., 2002), and affect regulation (Schore, 1994), but also for nonlinear (Schore, 1997b) and primary-process cognition (Galin, 1974; Joseph, 1996).  Rotenberg pointed out that in contrast to linear left hemispheric, formal logical thinking that builds up “a pragmatically convenient, but simplified model of reality,” right cortical image thinking is adaptive when information is “complex, internally contradictory and basically irreducible to an unambiguous context” (1995, p. 57).  (schore/ar/94)”

“The ability to act as a holding container (interactive psychobiological regulator) for the patient’s “affective energy” “may require the therapist to live in dual modes of existence…. The therapist must attend to his or her own self-regulatory functioning and at the same time participate fully with the patient in mutual exploration, development, and affective exchange”  (Perna, 1997, p. 260).  (schore/ar/95)….These two modes represent shifting up and down between the higher and lower levels of the right brain (see Schore 2001b).  (schore/ar/96)”

“This hemisphere is dominant for “image thinking,” a holistic, synthetic strategy that allows individual facets of images to interact with each other on many planes simultaneously (Rotenberg, 1995).”  (schore/ar/96)”

“The right hemisphere is dominant not only for processing negative primary emotions (Ross et al, 1994), but also for mediating pain and pain endurance (Cubelli et al, 1984; Hari et al, 1997; Hsieh et al, 1995) and modulating distress states via a right-brain circuit of inhibition and emotion regulation (Porges et al., 1994)  (schore/ar/98)”

“…orbitofrontal (ventromedial) regions of the right hemisphere…act in the capacity of an executive control system for the entire right brain…(quotes tons of his own work) (schore/ar/104)”

“”the orbitofrontal cortex is involved in critical human functions, such as social adjustment and the control of mood, drive and responsibility, traits that are crucial in defining the ‘personality’ of an individual” (Cavada & Schultz, 2000, p. 205)”

“Current neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the processing of self (Keenan et al., 2000) and self-regulation (Levine et al., 1998, 1999) occurs within the right prefrontal cortices” (schore/ar/104)

“…the self-concept is represented in right frontal areas (Craik et al., 199) (Schore/ar/104)”

“Current neurobiological studies now identify the location and functional properties of the intrapsychic structural systems that are involved in self-regulation…. The orbitofrontal (ventromedial) regions of the right hemisphere…act in the capacity of an executive control system for the entire right brain…(quotes tons of his own work) (schore/ar/104

“The ventral and medial regions of the prefrontal cortex act in “the highest level of control of behavior, especially in relation to emotion” (Price et al., 1996)”  (schore/ar/105)”

“…this prefrontal system detects “somatic markers” – “gut” feelings that are experienced in response to both real and imagined events, including threatening stimuli (Damasio, 1994)  This is due to the involvement of the orbitofrontal areas in the regulation of autonomic responses to social stimuli (Craig, 2002; Papousek & Schulter, 2001; Zald & Kim, 1996).  (schore/ar/105)”

“…the right ventral medial prefrontal cortex plays a primary role in “optimizing cautious and adaptive behavior in potentially threatening situations”  (Sullivan & Gratton, 2002a, p. 69)  (schore/ar/105)”

“…the orbitofrontal regions modulate the processing of pain and coping with a painful stimulus (Petrovic et al., 2000)  (schore/ar/105)”

“…this same system is critically and directly involved in…controlling the allocation of attention to possible contents of consciousness (Schore, 1994, 1997a, 1998b) (schore/ar/105)”

“the orbital prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in mediating between the internal environment and the external milieu (schore, 1994) in (schore/ar/105)

“the orbitofrontal regulatory system is intimately involved in the generation of an “emotional hunch” (Barbas, 1995) (schore/ar/105)

also in “cognitive-emotional interactions: (Barbas, 1995) (schore/ar/105)”

“It can thus “integrate and assign emotional-motivational signficance to cognitive impressions; the association of emotion with ideas and thoughts: (Joseph, 1996, p. 427)” (schore/ar/105)”

“A maturational advance of this system allows for the “unthought known” (Bollas, 1987), earlier only expressed as projective identifications, to become symbolized and thereby communicated as coherent subjective affect states. (schore/ar/105)”

I suggest that an early (schore/ar/105) history of “ambient trauma” [peritrauma] is responsible for the maturational delay of, specifically, this “senior executive” prefrontal system (Schore, 1997b, 1998e, 1998i, 1999f, 1999g, 2001c) in (schore/ar/106)”

“Orbital activity is also associated with a lower threshold for awareness of sensations of both external and internal origin (Goldberg et al., 1989) (schore/ar/106)”

“and self-reflective awareness (Stuss et al., 1992) (schore/ar/106)”

“The central involvement of this psychic system in preconscious functions (Frank, 1950) (schore/ar/106)”

“and in directed attention allows it to act as an “internal reflecting and organizing agency” (Kaplan-Solms & Solms, 1996) with which one can reflect on one’s own internal emotional states, as well as others (Povinelli & Preuss, 1995) (schore/ar/106)”

(schore/ar/106)”

“the orbitofrontal system is critically involved in detecting “changes of emotional state” and “breaches of expectation” (Nobre et al., 1999) (schore/ar/106)”

“and in processing feedback information” (Elliott, Frith, & Dolan, 1997) (schore/ar/106)”

“and “hypothesis selection” (Goel & Dolan, 2000) (schore/ar/106)”

“Indeed, this coping system is specialized to act in contexts of “uncertainty or unpredictability” (Elliott, Dolan, & Frith, 2000) (schore/ar/106)”

“As opposed to orbitofrontal areas of the right cerebral cortex that are associated with affective shifts, those in the left verbal-linguistic hemisphere are specifically involved in “semantic implicit retrieval that does not depend upon intentional recollection” (Demb et al, 1995).   An increase of connections between the right and left orbital areas may thus allow for left hemispheric (schore/ar/106) retrieval from implicit-procedural memory and semantic encoding of right-hemispheric emotional states.  In light of the facts that the orbiotofrontal [sic] areas are “critical to the experience of emotion” (Baker, Frith, & Dolan, 1997, p. 565) and fundamentally involved in “cognitive-emotional learning” (Rolls, Hornak, Wade, & McGrath, 1994) and “cognitive-emotional interactions” (Barbas, 1995), the therapeutic relationship can act as a growth-facilitating environment for this self-regulatory system.  (schore/ar/107)”

“Because the structural maturation of the infant’s right hemisphere (“right mind”) is directly influenced by its interactions with the primary caregiver, a knowledge of its development is relevant to a deeper understanding of the early ontogeny of the primitive human brain-mind-body.  The operations of the early-maturing hemisphere mediates the empathic perception of the emotional states of other humans.  (schore/ar/107)”

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“…the function of the right hemisphere is to “maintain a coherent, continuous, and unified sense of self” (Devinsky, 2000). In (schore/ar/111)”

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“Indeed, the early-maturing emotion processing right brain is dominant in human infants for the first 3 years of life (Chiron et al., 1997; Schore, 1994).  A magnetic resonance image (MRI) study of infants reports that the volume of the brain increases rapidly during the first 2 years, that normal adult appearance is seen at 2 years and all major fiber tracts can be identified by age 3, and that infants under 2 years show higher right than left hemispheric volumes (Matsuzawa et al, 2001).  The human brain growth spurt spans the last trimester of pregnancy through the middle of the second year (Dobbin & Sands, 1973).  This exact interval represents a period of accelerated growth of (schore/ar/116) the right hemisphere:  “The right hemisphere is more advanced than the left in surface features from about the 25th (gestational) week and this advance persists until the left hemisphere shows a post-natal growth spurt starting in the second year” (Trevarthen, 1996, p. 582).  The maturation of the socioemotional right hemisphere is experience dependent, and these experiences are provided in the attachment transactions that occur in the first 2 years of life (Schore, 1994, 1996, 1998b, 1998f, 2000d, 2000c, 2000h).  (schore/ar/117)”

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“…the functional maturation of limbic circuits is significantly influenced by the social-emotional experiences embedded in the attachment relationship.  (schore/ar/117)”

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“High speed video analysis of mouth asymmetry reveals that the right hemisphere controls the emotional expression of a spontaneous smile at 5 months (Holowka & Petitto, 2002).  These early right lateralized events also impact the auditory realm – a functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) study showed that the human maternal response to an infant’s cry is accompanied by activation of the mother’s right brain (Lorberbaum et al., 2002). (schore/ar/119)”

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right hemisphere is dominant

++ “for the physiological and cognitive components of emotional processing (quotes a bunch of people) in (schore/ar/119)”

++ “the critical function of distinguishing internal emotional states (Cicone, Wapner, & Gardner, 1980) (schore/ar/119)”

++ “the control of spontaneously evoked emotional reactions (Dimberg & Petterson, 2000) (schore/ar/119)”

++  “the modulation of “primary emotions” (Ross, Hofman, & Buck, 1994) (schore/ar/119)”

++  “the adaptive capacity for the regulation of affect (quotes lots of his own work) (schore/ar/119)”

++ “Current findings in neuroscience further suggest that “while the left hemisphere mediates most linguistic behaviors, the right hemisphere is important for broader aspects of communication” (van Lancker & Cummings, 1999, p. 95) (schore/ar/119)”

++  “This hemisphere is also dominant for evaluating the trustworthiness of faces (Winston, Strange, O’Doherty, & Dolan, 2002) (schore/ar/119)”

see ANS also

“…the deep connections of the right brain, the biological substrate of the human unconscious into both the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the ANS (Schore, 1996, 1997b, 1999c, 2001b), “the physiological bottom of the mind” (Jackson, 1931), supports Freud’s idea about the central role of drive in the system unconscious.  (Schore/ar/120)”

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“For the rest of the lifespan the nonverbal right brain, more so than the later maturing verbal left, plays a superior role in the regulation of physiological, endocrinological, neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and immune functions (Hugdahl, 1995; Sullivan & Grafton, 1999).  Its operations are essential to the vital coping functions that support self-survival, and therefore to the human stress response (Whittling, 1997).  (schore/ar/120)” [copied also to schore ANS}

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“In an important review of the literature on the neurology of self, Devinsky (2000) delineated the known functions of the right hemisphere:  identify a corporeal image of self and its relation to the environment; distinguish self from nonself; recognize familiar members of the species, emotionally understand and react to bodily and environment/stimuli; recall autobiographical information; relate self to environmental reality and to the social group; and maintain a coherent, continuous, and unified sense of self.  Indeed, neurobiological studies indicate that the right hemisphere is specialized for generating self-awareness and self-recognition, and for the processing of “self-related material” (Keenan et al, 2000, 2001; Kircher et al., 2001; Miller et al., 2001; Ruby & Decety, 2001; Schore, 1994).  (schore/ar/120)”

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copied this also to schore ANS – bolding, etc is done over there

“ The highest level of the right brain that processes affective information, the orbitofrontal cortex (lots of schore’s refs)….maturation of this prefrontal system overlaps and mediates what Stern (1985) termed the developmental achievement of “the subjective self.”  This cortex functions to refine emotions in keeping with current sensory input, and allows for the adaptive switching of internal bodily states in response to changes in the external environment that are appraised to be personally meaningful (Schore, 1998b).  Due to its direct links into stress-regulating systems this right prefrontal cortex represents the highest level of self-regulation (Levine et al., 1999; Schore, 1994; Sullivan & Gratton, 2002b).  The orbitofrontal system acts as a recovery mechanism that efficiently monitors and autoregulates the duration, frequency, and intensity of not only positive but also negative affect states.  (schore/ar/121)”

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copied to TIME notes schore ar ch4

“…the orbitofrontal system critically contributes to “the integration of past, present, and future experiences, enabling adequate performance in behavioral tasks, social situation, or situations involving survival (Lipton, Alvarez, & Eichenbaum, 1999, p. 356).  But perhaps the most complex of all functions of the right prefrontal cortex is what the neuroscientists Wheeler, Stuss, and Tulving (1997) called “the ability to mentally travel (schore/ar/121) through time” – the capacity to mentally represent and become aware of subjective experiences in the past, present, and future.  This unique capacity to self reflect comes on line at 18 months (the time of orbitofrontal maturation):

The [right] prefrontal cortex, in conjunction with its reciprocal connections with other cortical and subcortical structures, empowers healthy human adults with the capacity to consider the self’s extended existence throughout time. The most complete expression of this capacity, autonoetic awareness, occurs whenever one consciously recollects or re-experiences  a happening from a specific time in the past, attends directly to one’s present or on-line experience, or contemplates one’s existence and conduct at a time in the future.  (Wheeler et al, 1997, pl. 350; italics added).

(schore/ar/122)

This is certainly something I had no experience with as a child, until 18 at least!

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IMPORTANT

and good summation of brain damage

“Basic research in affective neuroscience demonstrated that emotional and social deprivation interferes with the normal development of the synaptic architecture of cortical and subcortical limbic areas, and leads to “neurological scars” that underlie subsequent behavioral and cognitive deficits (Poeggel & Braun, 1996; Poeggel et al., 1999).  The deficits described by self psychology are thus, specifically, functional deficits that reflect structural defects of cortical-subcortical circuits of the right brain, the locus of the corporeal-emotional self.  (schore/ar/134)”

“Due to the altered development of the right cortical system that nonconsciously decodes emotional stimuli by actual felt emotional responses to stimuli, individuals with poor attachment histories display empathy disorders, the limited capacity to perceive the emotional states of others.  An inability to read subtle facial expressions leads to a misattribution of emotional states and (schore/ar/134) a misinterpretation of the intentions of others.  In addition to this deficit in social cognition in appraising external social cues, such individuals also exhibit a poor ability to appraise the internal cues of their bodily states, [boy this makes me think of that Rhodes/Allen book and the criminal’s reports] and what Krystal (1997) termed desomatization.  Impairments of these right brain functions preclude an adaptive capacity to evaluate external-social and internal-physiological signals of safety and danger.  (schore/ar/135)”

He continues to keep these brain damage statements separate from the ANS problems!  It also reminds me of Georgia’s bizarre finger snapping/lunging at me out of nowhere….did she so misjudge ME?  Did I give inadequate cues to her?  Boy, put two damaged people together and there’s bound to be exponential problems!

“The coping deficits in right hemispheric self-regulation are manifest in a limited capacity to modulate the intensity and duration of affects, especially biologically primitive affects like shame, rage, excitement, elation, disgust, panic-terror, and hopeless despair.  Under stress such individuals experience not discrete and differentiated affects, but diffuse, undifferentiated, chaotic states accompanied by overwhelming somatic and visceral sensations.  The poor capacity for what Fonagy and Target (1997) called mentalization leads to a restricted ability to reflect upon their emotional states.  (schore/ar/135)”

“Traumatic attachment experiences negatively affect the early organization of the right brain, and thereby produce deficits in its adaptive functions of emotionally understanding and reacting to bodily and environmental stimuli, identifying a corporeal image of self and its relation to the environment, distinguishing the self from the other, and generating self-awareness.  Optimal attachment experiences allow for the emergence of self-awareness, the adaptive a [sic] capacity to sense, attend to, and reflect upon the dynamic changes of one’s subjective self-states, but traumatic attachments in childhood lead to self-modulation of painful affect by directing attention away from internal emotional states.  Pain integration, a determinant factor in species survival, is preferentially dependent on the right hemisphere (Ostrowsky et al, 2002).  (schore/ar/135)”

“…the paralimbic areas of the right hemisphereare preferentially involved in the storage of traumatic memories (Schiffer, Teicher, & Papanicolaou, 1995), and that altered right-sided activity occurs in panic and social phobic anxiety states (Davidson and a bunch more) (schore/ar/136)”  [there’s a bunch more right-brain facts listed here]

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IMPORTANT

“The neuroscience literature also indicates that dissociation is associated with a deficiency of the right brain (Weinberg, 2000).  Crucian and colleagues described “a dissociation between the emotional evaluation of an event and the physiological reaction to that event, with the process being dependent on intact right hemisphere function” (2000, p. 643).  A failure of orbitofrontal function is seen in the hypometabolic state of pathological dissociation, and this dysfunction would interfere with its [orbitofrontal] normal role in processing motivational information and modulating the motivational control of goal-directed behavior, and therefore manifest as a deficit in organizing the expression of a regulated emotional response and an appropriate motivational state for a particular social environmental context.  (schore/ar/136)”

“As a result, during times of traumatic dissociation, the major motivational systems that are programmed to actively cope with the external social environment are switched off.  This would lead to a deactivation of every component of Panksepp’s (1998) [sometimes reading this stuff makes me so sad I can’t even see the words on the page through my tears.  It feels so hopeless and so awful, so irreversible and incurable.] system of prototypic affective states, including those associated with “attachment to conspecifics,” such as nurthurance/maternal care, play/joy/social affection, and sexuality, as well as the “organismic defence [sic] system” of rage/anger and fear.  Similarly, the active coping strategies of Lichtenberg’s (1989) attachment-affiliation, exploratory-assertive, aversive, and sensual-sexual motivational systems all collapse in subcortically programmed survival states of passive disengagement, conservation-withdrawal, energy depletion, and dissociation, the escape when there is no escape, the last-resort defensive strategy. (schore/ar/136) [he is repeating this last part, is over in ANS]

I also suspect this is part of why I could never think about escape, or even an end coming “some day when I grew up.”  All my motivational systems were shut down.

“In psychoanalytic work, Mollon (2001) described the similarities of the enduring pathological effects of both early psychological and neurological damage.  In the developmental neuropsychological literature, Anderson, Damasio, Tranel, and Damasio delineated the sequelae of early versus late neurological damage to the prefrontal cortex and concluded that these “impairments largely reflect a failure to ever develop specific cognitive and behavioral competencies, whereas in the adult-onset cases the defects arose through deterioration or loss of normally developed abilities” (2000, p. 291). (schore/ar/136)”

“The deficits described by self psychology thus represent enduring developmental failures of specifically the higher regulatory prefrontal areas of the early-developing right brain….The maladaptive deficits of affect regulation that accompany pathological dissoci-  (schore/ar/136) ation, a primitive defense against overwhelming affects, are expressed in a spectrum of severe self-pathologies, from reactive attachment disorder of infants (Hinshaw-Fuselier, Boris, & Zeanah, 1999), to psychotic experiences (Allen & Coyne, 1995), dissociative identity disorders (Putnam, 1989), posttraumatic stress disorders (van der Kolk, McFarlane, & Weisaeth, 1996), and borderline personality disorders (Golynkina & Ryle, 1999).  Early traumatic attachments are therefore a powerful source generator of the most severe deficits described by self psychology.  (schore/ar/137)”

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“In clinical studies of adults Stone observed, “the red thread running through… borderline personality disorder is irritability:  specifically, a special sort of nervous system irritability, heterogeneous in etiology, that conduces to impulsive, often chaotic behavior”  (1992, p. 9).  In fact throughout the lifespan borderline personality disorders, like PTSD, exhibit massive disturbances in affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal difficulties, self-integration, and a bias to use dissociation when under stress.  (Herman & van der Kolk, 1987).  These functions are subserved by the right hemisphere, and so early abuse and neglect produce an inefficient right brain, which is centrally involved in affect regulation, dissociation, and survival functions.  The neuropsychiatrist Vadim Rotenberg (1995) concluded:

[The] functional deficiency of the right hemisphere … may be caused by the lack of emotional relationships between the child and the parents.  Such emotional relationships … stimulate the development of the right hemi- (schore/ar/140) sphere functions and correspond to these functions as a key to a lock.  If these emotional relationships are insufficient, the right hemisphere will become inefficient, its contribution in psychological defense mechanisms and emotional stabilization will be lost, and there will be a general predisposition to subsequent mental and psychosomatic disorders.  (p. 59)

A defining symptom of psychosomatic disorders, PTSD, and borderline personality disorders, alexithymia, reflects right hemispheric dysfunction (Dewarja & Sasaki and a bunch more) (schore/ar/141)”

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BORDERLINES

unbeknownst to the left

“The neuroscience literature has described “early emotional learning occurring in the right hemisphere unbeknownst to the left; learning and associated emotional responding may later be completely unaccessible to the language centers of the brain” (Joseph, 1982, p. 243).  In the trauma literature, McFarlane and Yehuda observed, “Essentially, the core of traumatic syndromes is the capacity of current environmental triggers (real or symbolic), to provoke the intense recall of affectively charged traumatic memory structures, which come to drive current behaviour and perception” (2000, p. 900).  According to Valent (1998), early handling and misattunements may be deeply remembered in later life not in verbal explicit memory but in the form of disconnected physiological responses, emotions, and acting out.  (schore/ar/141)”

The most significant consequence of early relational trauma is the loss of the ability to regulate the intensity and duration of affects. [I would add in here, damage to the ANS and CNS!]  Clinical research has revealed that borderline personalities, when stressed, attribute high levels of primitive, negative (“all bad”) evaluations to others (splitting), exhibit poor empathy and psychological understanding, manifest more intense negative responses to everyday life events, and show an increased sensitivity to even low-level emotional stimuli (Arntz & Veen, 2001; Herpetz, Kunert, Schwenger, & Sass, 1999; Levine, Marziali, & Hood, 1997).  These severe deficits in socioemotional functions are paralleled by structural defects in limbic areas involved in the processing of socioemotional information.  A growing body of neurobiological research has demonstrated dysfunctions of the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, the “Senior Executive” of the social-emotional brain, in both PTSD and borderline personality disorders (Berthier et al., 2001; Galletly et al., 2001; Goyer, Konicki, & Schulz, 1994; Herpetz et al., 2001; Koenen et al, 2001; Shin et al., 1999).  This work has implied a similarity in the developmental precursors, the functional deficits, and the structural defects of these early-forming self-psychopathologies.  (schore/ar/141)”

I’m putting more on borderline over in ANS section

I wish I knew specifically what they mean by early-forming!  Just that now they KNOW that they all formed EARLY!?

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BORDERLINE

“The severe right-brain deficits that result from traumatic attachments characterize much more (schore/ar/141) than the self-esteem regulation of narcissistic personality disorders; rather, they are descriptive of the deficits in bodily based survival functions that characterize severe borderline personality disorders.  (schore/ar/142)”

“Affect dysregulation, a central feature of borderline personality disorders, is specifically manifest when “highs and lows are too extreme, too prolonged, or too rapidly cycled and unpredictable” (Bach, 1998, p. 18).  Such rapid state shifts are expressed in moments of interpersonal stress within a close interpersonal relationship…. The ambient relational trauma of disorganized-disoriented insecure attachments, imprinted in implicit-procedural memory, is reexperienced in the arousal and autonomic dysregulation of severe self-pathologies. (schore/ar/142)”

“The borderline’s impairment in the recognition and communication of overwhelming and therefore dissociated subjective states reflects the fact that due to the ambient early trauma of a growth-inhibiting relational environment, the higher right brain corticolimbic regulatory systems have never optimally evolved.  (schore/ar/144)”

A lady in Old Bisbee told me today:  “The mind protects the soul.”

“Anreasen, the editor of the American Journal of Psychiatry, concluded that psychoanalytic intensive therapy “may be viewed as a long-term rebuilding and restructuring of the memories and emotional responses that have been embedded in the limbic system” (2001, p314).  (schore/ar/145)”

Again, is there another way??

“In longer term treatment, the experience-dependent organization of more complex vertical circuits within the right brain and horizontal circuits with the left brain allow for the emergence of more complex functions.  The dyadic therapeutic context acts as a growth-facilitating environment for the patient’s more densely interconnected right brain-left brain systems that can access not only a more fully developed subjective nonverbal affective “support-experience” factor, but also an objective “insight” factor that is activated by adequate interpretation (de Jonghe et al., 1992).  In light of the well-documented principle that creative thinking and insight derive from unconscious processes, it now [sic] thought that the right hemispheric coarse processing mode that activates “distantly related information or unusual interpretation of words” activates solution of insight problems (Bowden & Beeman, 1998, p. 435).  (schore/ar/145)”

“The inceptive capacity to use a support factor (cocreate a system of interactive regulation with the therapist) as well as access insight enhances the patient’s reflective function.  This emergent function, the product of a structural reorganization of the “integrative” right hemisphere (Federmeier & Kutas, (schore/ar/145) 1999) and its connections with the left’s verbal reasoning capacity (Langdon & Warrington, 2000), is facilitated by the empathic-regulatory aspects of the therapeutic relationship.  The patient’s developmental advance, in turn, underlies the onset of a higher level integrative capacity that allows “free access to affective memories of alternate states, a kind of superordinate reflective awareness that permits multiple perspectives of the self” (Bach, 1985, p. 179). (schore/ar/146)”

“The prominent role of the right hemisphere in social emotional, moral, and empathic functions also reflects it’s important contributions to high level cognitive functions.  It is dominant over the left in maintaining larger stores of information, with greaterspedificity, over longer periods of time (Kirsner & Brown, 1981; Marsolek, Kosslyn, & Nicholas, 1996).  I suggest that this description also pertains to this hemispher’s central involvement in social cognition.  Therapeutic advances in what Stern and his colleagues called “implicit relational knowledge” (Lynons-Ruth, et al, 1998) thus are due to more complex operations of the right brain, a central locus of “implicit learning” (Hugdahl, 1995).  Changes in nonverbal implicit relational knowledge are at the core of therapeutic change (Stern et al., 1998).  Towards that end, affectively-focused interpretations are directed towards a deeper understanding of the patient’s emotion-enhancing and emotion-distancing coping mechanisms, and at the conflicts and tensions between autoregulation (autonomy) and interactive regulation (interconnectedness.  In this work, as Sander pointed out, “it is not the past we seek but the logic of the patient’s own state regulating strategies”  (in Schwaber, 1990, p. 238). (schore/ar/146)”

“It is commonly assumed that left hemispheric language and abstraction capacities represent the highest human capacities.  If the left hemisphere has an adaptive advantage over the right in reasoning involving abstract content, work on “the neurology of reasoning” suggested that the right is better suited for analogical reasoning, and reasoning involving familiar situations (Shuren & Grafman, 2002).  (schore/ar/146)”

“Other imaging research revealed the existence of a logic-specific network in the right hemisphere that supports deductive reasoning….This work clearly implies that a preconscious yet fundamental meaning system can operate before a conscious language meaning system.  (schore/ar/147)”

“The right hemisphere…is also the locus of the emotional self….(schore/ar/147)”

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this is from schore/ad

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copied from the schore ad section on energy

PRIMITIVE OR PRIMARY EMOTIONS

Larsen & Trauner, 1995:

“…concluded that the development of infant emotions represent “primitives” of affective communication.  (Schore/ad/111)”

“…emotions have, in addition to a valence (hedonic) dimension, an intensity or arousal (energetic) dimension.  Many of the “primary” emotions are

ergotropic-dominant, energy-expending, high-arousal

or

trophotropic-dominant, energy-conserving, low-arousal affects

and these “primitive” affects appear early in development [it would be nice and helpful if he said here HOW early], arise automatically, are expressed in facial movements, and are coreltated with differentiable ANS activity.  Due to the lateralization of catecholaminergic systems in the right hemisphere, it is dominant in the regulation of arousal and is more closely associated with regulation of heart rate than the left.  This hemisphere is specialized for processing the autonomic correlates of emotional arousal, and activation of the right orbitofrontal are occurs during classical conditioning of an emotional response, the learning of the relationship between events that allows the organism to represent its environment (Hugdahl et al., 1995).  The structural and functional qualities of the right cortex, which has a higher metabolic rate than the left, thus account for its essential role in highly arousing emotional processes.  (Schore/ad/111)”

I need to also copy this last part into a file so that it can go with the specific information on the hemispheres

++++

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One thought on “++SCHORE ON DEVELOPMENT OF RIGHT BRAIN

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